Cutting edge: characterization of human tissue-resident memory T Cells at different infection sites in patients with tuberculosis
Yang, Q. , Zhang, M., Chen, Q.Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) have a key role in mediating the host defense against tuberculosis (TB) in mice, but their human counterparts have not been well characterized. In this article, we recruited patients with TB and determined TRM frequency, trafficking, activation marker expression, and cytokine production by flow or mass cytometry at different infection sites, including peripheral blood, pleural fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung. We found a high frequency of TRMs at all infection sites apart from the peripheral blood. These TRMs exhibited a memory phenotype, were highly activated (based on CD38 and HLA-DR expression), and expressed high levels of trafficking (CCR5 and CXCR6) and exhaustion (PD-1) markers. When stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TRMs secreted cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and exhibited a multifunctional phenotype. TRMs limited intracellular M. tuberculosis replication in macrophages. These data inform our current understanding of immunosurveillance at different infection sites in patients with TB.
Yang, Q. , Zhang, M., Chen, Q. "Cutting edge: characterization of human tissue-resident memory T Cells at different infection sites in patients with tuberculosis" Journal of Immunology (2020): DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1901326