Low frequency KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients and the presence of multiple mutations in oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer patients
Jiang, L., Huang, J., Morehouse, C. et al.
Intratumor heterogeneity can confound the results of mutation analyses in oncodriver genes using traditional methods, thereby challenging the application of targeted cancer therapy strategies for patients. Ultradeep sequencing can detect low frequency and expanded clonal mutations in primary tumors to better inform treatment decisions. KRAS coding exons in 61 treatment-naive colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors and KRAS, EGFR, ALK, and MET in lung tumors from three Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were sequenced using ultradeep sequencing methods. Forty-one percent of CRC patients (25/61) harbored mutations in the KRAS active domain, eight of which (13%) were not detected by Sanger sequencing. Three (of eight) had frequencies less than 10% and one patient harbored more than one mutation. Low frequency KRAS active (G12R) and EGFR kinase domain mutations (G719A) were identified in one NSCLC patient. A second NSCLC patient showed an EML4-ALK fusion with ALK, EGFR, and MET mutations. A third NSCLC patient harbored multiple low frequency mutations in KRAS, EGFR, and MET as well as ALK gene copy number increases. Within the same patient, multiple low frequency mutations occurred within a gene. A complex pattern of intrinsic low frequency driver mutations in well-known tumor oncogenes may exist prior to treatment, resulting in resistance to targeted therapies. Ultradeep sequencing can characterize intratumor heterogeneity and identify such mutations to ultimately affect treatment decisions.
Jiang, L., Huang, J., Morehouse, C. et al. "Low frequency KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients and the presence of multiple mutations in oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer patients" Cancer Genetics (2013): 330–9