T cell-directed IL-17 production by lung granular γδ T cells is coordinated by a novel IL-2 and IL-1β circuit
Ménoret, A., Buturla, J.A., Xu, M.M. et al.
Immune-mediated lung is considered the result of an exacerbated innate injury immune response, although a role for adaptive lymphocytes is emerging. αβ T cells specific for S. aureus enterotoxin A orchestrate a Tγδ17 response during lung injury. However, the mechanism driving IL-17 production is unclear. Here, we show a role for IL-2 triggering IL-17 production by lung granular γδ T cells as IL-17 synthesis and neutrophil recruitment was reduced by IL-2 blocking mAbs in vitro and in vivo. Mass cytometry analysis revealed that lung γδ T cells responded directly to IL-2 as evident from STAT5 phosphorylation and RoRγt expression. IL-2 receptor blocking mAbs and JAK inhibition impaired STAT5 phosphorylation and IL-17 release. Moreover, inhalation of S. aureus enterotoxin A induced IL-2 secretion and caspase-1-dependent IL-1β activation to drive IL-17 production. This T-cell-mediated inflammasome-dependent IL-17 response is maximum when lung Tγδ17 cells were sequentially stimulated first with IL-2 then IL-1β. Interestingly, when IL-2 is given therapeutically to cancer patients it carries a known risk of lung injury that is largely indistinguishable from that seen in sepsis. Hence, this novel mechanism reveals therapeutic targets treating both acute lung injury and high-dose IL-2 toxicity in cancer.
Ménoret, A., Buturla, J.A., Xu, M.M. et al. "T cell-directed IL-17 production by lung granular γδ T cells is coordinated by a novel IL-2 and IL-1β circuit" Mucosal Immunology (2018): doi: 10.1038/s41385-018-0037-0