Can I measure cell cycle stages (i.e., G0, G1, S, G2, M) using a CyTOF mass cytometer?

Yes. The stages of the cell cycle can be discriminated using 127IdU and metal-tagged antibodies to pRb, cyclin B1, and pH3. For details see Behbehani et al., Cytometry A 81A, 552–566. Briefly, G0 cells are negative for all four markers, G1 cells express only pRb, S phase cells incorporate 127IdU during DNA replication, G2 cells express cyclin B1 and mitotic cells uniquely express pH3.